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Research and development works

I make expert services for different organizations on request. I am currently specializing as a doctoral researcher in the proactive management of human factors in demanding operating environments. In producing information, I use the research methods that are best suited to the topic at hand. I am particularly interested in developing the operations of safety-critical organizations. If your organization needs a reliable partner, don't hesitate to get in touch!

Doctoral dissertation on performance and workload management in high–speed workboats, University of Vaasa


I am writing a doctoral dissertation in the Doctoral Programme in Social Sciences at the University of Vaasa. The study produces information that can be used to improve the performance of workgroups and workload management in safety-critical activities, especially in the cockpit work of high-speed workboats maritime specialty. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the current paradigm shift in safety research (Safety I–II) and the utilization of human factors in the development of operations.

I would like to thank the following foundations for supporting research:

Ella and Georg Ehrnrooth Foundation (2023–2024)

Foundation for the Promotion of Fisheries and Maritime Education (2023)

The Finnish Cultural Foundation South Ostrobothnia (2022–2023)

Otto A. Malm Foundation (2022)

The Finnish Cultural Foundation South Ostrobothnia (2021–2022)

Coastal and Freshwater Traffic Foundation  (2022)

Gustav B. Thorden Foundation (2021)

Development and training of cockpit work, Finnish Lifeboat Institution


Increasing the safety and performance of cockpit work on high-speed rescue and patrol boats is essential for the success of rescue operations. I have been a leading expert for a long time in this project. Today, the Finnish Lifeboat Institution trains uniform operating methods in the new simulation environment and develops the management of human factors at different levels of the organization. The first cockpit work simulator was built in cooperation with the volunteer sea rescuers of the Vaasa station of the Finnish Lifeboat Institution.

I am the primary instructor of the Finnish Lifeboat Institution´s cockpit work (2020–).

The Finnish Lifeboat Institution named the development and construction of the Finnish Lifeboat Institution's cockpit simulator the Safety Act of the Year 2020.


The experimental phase of the simulator project began in 2019. In 2021, nationwide cockpit work training was started in a simulation environment. In spring 2023, about 15 three-day courses have already been organized.


The development of the Lifeboat Institution's simulator and the development of cockpit work training has been supported by the Weisell Foundation (2020–2021).

Development seminar on the cockpit work of high-speed workboats 2022, University of Vaasa and Finnish Lifeboat Institution


In April 2022, I organized a two-day seminar of the University of Vaasa and the Finnish Lifeboat Institution to develop maritime safety. High-speed workboats operate in Finland in one of the most demanding water areas in the world. With the help of systemic and proactive management of human factors, operations can be developed to be safer and more efficient. The participants in the two-day seminar include the Finnish Border Guard, the Finnish Navy, the partnership network of rescue departments and Finnpilot. In addition to experts from the University of Vaasa, the seminar featured a great selection of guest performers from the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, the Safety Investigation Authority, Finnair, Fintraffic Air Navigation and the University of Jyväskylä.

Cockpit work procedures for high-speed lifeboats, Finnish Lifeboat Institution


The high-speed rescue and patrol boat crews are facing a significant challenge. The operating culture, working methods, and equipment ergonomics of maritime organizations have not developed as rapidly as the performance of ships. Optimal use of human resources, technical resources, and knowledge requires new knowledge, much experience, and a constant desire to develop working methods.


Shipping relies heavily on traditions, and changing the working culture requires much work. However, the culture is evolving one step at a time by changing concrete working methods to make them more efficient and safer. From 2008 to 2013, I led the Finnish Lifeboat Institution's cockpit work project to create a working process for high-speed cabined lifeboats. Data from several key maritime organizations was used to assist in the development work. Still, the most significant cultural change was related to the alignment of aviation CRM practices with the maritime operating environment.


For example, as part of the Lifeboat Institution's cockpit work project, a  tool was produced and used in electronic route planning to lighten the workload of the lifeboat maneuvering team.


In 2020, I wrote the updated cockpit working procedures of the Finnish Lifeboat Institution, which was published in November (Meripelastusseuran ohjaamotyöskentely, 2020). The revised work instructions deal in detail with the challenges and solutions of cockpit work with fast lifeboats (link to the publication). The updated version of the method is trained in the national courses of the Finnish Lifeboat Institution.

Comparative study on the impact of management work methods on error management in safety-critical work environments, University of Vaasa (master´s thesis)


In my master's thesis, completed in the spring of 2020, I compared the impact of management working methods on error management in three safety-critical work environments: rescue aviation, specialized medical care, and maritime rescue. The study was carried out at the Management Unit of the University of Vaasa. The study's key conclusion is that the optimization of error management requires skillful variation in the working methods of hierarchical and shared leadership. A demanding task for a manager is to choose a practical way based on, among other things, the growth phase of the working group, the status quo, the object of work, and the manager's capabilities. To be as successful as possible in error management, all employees should be trained in teamwork and error management, as well as technical skills. Success in this requires financial resources and the organization's leadership commitment. In every safety-critical work environment, efforts must be made to increase mutual trust, interactivity, and appreciation among the staff to prevent mistakes and reduce their harmful aftermath. Management is always carried out in cooperation with all working group members. Therefore, the organization's development in error management requires the simultaneous learning of both managers and subordinates.

The permanent address of the publication is:

Occupational safety and health of paramedics in water area tasks,

Ostrobothnia Rescue Department / Finnish Institute of Occupational Health 78th TSPK Occupational Safety and Health Manager's Course


Emergency care work is carried out outside the hospital, often in demanding safety-critical conditions. In the tasks in the water area, employees are subject to special hazards and hazards that must be taken into account in the risk assessments of organizations. In 2020, I carried out a comprehensive risk assessment for the Ostrobothnia Rescue Department on the work of paramedics in water area tasks. The study was related to the 78th TSPK Occupational Safety and Health Manager's course module of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. In emergency care tasks, cooperation between rescue organizations is emphasized. The task- and situation-specific working groups are highly multi-professional. The safety cultures of all organizations involved in emergency medical services in the water area form the basis for paramedics' occupational safety and health. The safety culture is influenced by, among other things, the strategic policies and examples of the management, the values of operations, the attitudes of the personnel, and, for example, the attitude towards learning from mistakes.


Technical competence related to work phases and the use of work equipment, good non-technical skills, and good employee orientation are prerequisites for the safety of work carried out in the water area. In addition, each employee must master the use of personal protective equipment, the procedures for operating in emergencies, the safe operation of watercraft, and the working methods of cooperation organizations. There must be no shortage of personal protective equipment, and workers' equipment must be planned to account for even the most severe incidents.

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